These guidelines are part of the World Health Organization (WHO) programme on the Rapid Scaling Up of the Health Workforce. This programme is an essential component of WHO’s efforts to support the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals, strengthen health systems and achieve universal coverage in the context of primary health care.
These activities have been supported by Margaret Chan, Director-General of WHO and Carissa Etienne, formerly Assistant Director-General for Health Systems and Services. Manuel M. Dayrit, Director, of the former Department of Human Resources of Health (HRH), Francesca Celletti formerly leading the guidelines development process and Rebecca Bailey of the former Department of Human Resources of Health and more recently by Mario Dal Poz, former Coordinator, HRH.
The writing of these guidelines and recommendations was shared by a team from the WHO Collaborating Centre for Health Workforce Policy and Planning, Portugal, led by Gilles Dussault (Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Lisbon) with Claudia Leone and Inês Fronteira.
The WHO headquarters team was led by Erica Wheeler with support from Mwansa Nkowane. Editorial assistance was provided by Joanne McManus (independent consultant, UK) for all aspects of the writing of the guidelines . The guidelines were copy edited by Diana Hopkins (independent consultant, Geneva).
Core Guidelines Development Group: The members of the Guidelines Development Group are acknowledged below. A complete list with contact addresses is at Annex 9 of these guidelines.
Walid Abubaker, Maki Agawa, Hidechika Akashi, Barbara Aranda-Naranjo, Edson Araujo, Djona Avocksouma, Rebecca Bailey, Jean Barry, Millard Derbew Beyene, Margaret Brewinski-Issacs, Agenta Bridges, Eric Buch, Francisco Eduardo de Campos, Ian Couper, Mario Dal Poz, Lola Dare, Fatoumata Binta T. Diallo, Carmen Dolea, Seble Frehywot, Gulin Gedik, David Gordon, Carolyn Hall, Keith Holmes, Jehu Iputo, Yojiro Ishii, Masamine Jimba, Peter Johnson, David A. Knapp, Christophe Lemière, Marilyn Lorenzo, Silvina Malvarez, Joanne McManus, Lynn Middleton, Mwapatsa Mipando, Fitzhugh Mullan, Mwansa Nkowane, Robert Ochai, Galina Perfilieva, Ann Phoya, Arletty Pinel, Estelle Quain, Lois Schaefer, Budihardja Moehammad Singgih, Kate Tulenko, Leana Uys, Willem van Lerberghe, Yianna Vovides, Erica Wheeler, Ding Yang. Ms Régine Guin of the WHO headquarters secretariat provided administrative support for the meeting along with staff from the WHO AMRO office under the supervision of Silvina Malvarez (WHO Regional Office for the Americas).
WHO Secretariat: From WHO departments at headquarters the expert consultation meetings were chaired initially by Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the former Department of Human Resources for Health (HRH) with support from Francesca Celletti and latterly by Wim Van Lerberghe, Director for Health Policies, Systems and Workforce of which department the Human Resources for Health Team is now a part. Logistical support for the expert consultation meetings was provided by Virgie Largado, formerly of the HRH Department, and Regine Guin. The following staff members in WHO’s regional offices were actively involved in the expert consultations meetings: Walid Abubaker (WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Egypt); Silvina Malvarez (WHO Regional Office for the Americas), USA); Ezekiel Nukuro (WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, the Philippines); Galina Perfilieva (WHO Regional Office for Europe, Denmark); Buddiharja Singghit (WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia, India).
The initial scoping of the area of health professional education to obtain as broad an understanding of the areas on which to focus was undertaken by George Washington University in the USA led by Fitzhugh Mullan and Seble Frehywot.
Grade methodologist: Methodological support for producing the GRADE evidence tables and the balance worksheets was provided by Elie Akl (American University of Beirut, Lebanon; formerly State University of New York, Buffalo, USA) who was also involved in drafting the recommendations.
Declaration of Interest: All participants who were members of the Guideline Development Group signed a declaration of interest. These interests were not considered to conflict with participation in the development of the guidelines.
Peer review: The guidelines were peer reviewed by: Prof. Jan De Maeseneer, M.D., Ph.D. Head Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care, Ghent University, Belgium; Dean Fernando Caballero, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, Madrid, Spain; Dr. Juan Perez-Miranda Department of Institutional Relations, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, Madrid, Spain; Jean-Luc Eiselé, Executive Director, FDI World Dental Federation, Geneva, Switzerland; Dr Joy Fraser, Associate Professor, Athabasca University, Athabasca, Canada; Julian Fisher, Assistant Professor, Dental Faculty, University of Lyon, Lyon, France; and Margareta Skold, WHO Representative, Kingston, Jamaica. Their comments were sent electronically to the HRH team. The WHO Secretariat then made all the appropriate amendments/and or modifications to the text following discusson or email exchanges with peer reviewers. A complete list with contact addresses of peer reviewers is in Annex 10 of these guidelines.
Financial support: Financial support for the production of these recommendations was received from the the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and is gratefully acknowledged. Support for the Core Guidelines Development Group meeting in Washington March 2012 was also provided by IntraHealth and CapacityPlus for which we express sincere appreciation.
The views expressed in these guidelines can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of PEPFAR, USAID, IntraHealth, CapacityPlus or any partners involved in their development.